Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) is a fuel cell that runs directly on methanol (or various liquid fuels) without having to first convert those fuels into hydrogen gas. It consists of two electrodes separated by a proton exchange membrane (PEM) and connected via an external circuit that allows the conversion of free energy from the chemical reaction of methanol with air or oxygen to be directly converted into electrical energy.
A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) is a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) with both processes done in the same fuel stack. It is a Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM) style using usually hydrogen and oxygen. Reasons for development of this compact unitized RFC is less weight and mass.
A URFC combines an electrolyzer that separates the water molecules to make and store hydrogen and oxygen and reverse the process to combine the two elements and make electricity and H2O (water).
In 1885 a German scientist Robert Bunsen invented a device to mix air with natural gas in the correct proportions. The Bunsen Burner machine opened up many new opportunities for the use of natural gas in everyday use. Adding thermostatic devices to regulate the flame and so control temperature made it popular for heating and cooking. This invention helped change the use of natural gas from a wasted nuisance around oil and coal to a popular energy source.
A Fuel Cell is a device designed to convert the energy of a chemical reaction directly into electrical energy.
This electrochemical reaction occurs differently than other electrochemical power sources (EPS) like galvanic cells, primary and secondary batteries.
* With a fuel cell there is a constant supply of reactants that can be added to the device and a way to eliminate the products from the reaction.
*It does not depend on only the metals and oxides built into the unit.